The nineteenth century saw the growth of naturalism, or the study of nature as historically traceable. Though this book comes towards the end of the nineteenth century, it continues the legacy of naturalism, of which J. Dorman Steele was a part. Biology and zoology, and the continued division of science into disciplines, was a nineteenth century development, creating the disciplines within scholarship that we know today.
The first portion of this book is on invertebrates, and this chapter is titled Branch Arthropoda, the section Class Crustacea. These pages in particular describe fresh water shrimp and barnacles.
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For detailed illustrations like the ones here, intaglio printing would have been the most likely one used here. Intaglio printing is incised on a metal plate and painted with ink so that it sits within the thin groves incised. It is then wiped clean on the surface, the ink staying in the lines, paper placed over it and then under the roller in a rolling printer so that with enough pressure the ink is transferred to the page.
These images would have probably been printed after the typeface, since they would have had to have been wiped before printing. Space would be left for them when the compositing of the typeface was done.
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Binding is the basics of book construction, and sewing the quires together is what keeps a book intact, though time and use will always wear a book out. Every binder has a different way of doing it, and in more modern years it is done with a machine, and mostly with glue rather than sewn with thread.
This binding shows a black mark that would have been used to arrange the quires. Each quire would have had a mark on it sequentially and stair-cased when the whole was put together, so every quire was in the right place. To see an example and to investigate more about binding techniques, click on the button below.
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